Calcification in dead tissue
1-Caseous necrosis in T.B. is most common site of dystrophic calcification.
2-Liquefactive necrosis in chronic abscesses may get calcified.
3-Fat necrosis following acute pancreatitis or traumatic fat necrosis in breasts results in deposition of calcium soaps.
4-Infarcts may undergo D.C.
5-Thrombi, especially in veins, may produce phlebolithis.
6-Haematomas in the vicinity of bones may undergo D.C.
7-Dead parasites like schistosoma eggs may calcify.
8-Congenital toxoplasmosis, CMV or rubella may be seen on X-ray as calcifications in the brain.
Calcification in degenerated tissue
1-Dense scars may undergo hyaline degeneration and calcification.
2-Atheroma in aorta and coronaries frequently undergo calcification.3-Cysts can show calcification.
4-Calcinosis cutis is condition in which there are irregular nodular deposits of calcium salts in skin and subcutaneous tissue.
5-Senile degenerative changes may be accompanied by calcification.
6-The inherited disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum may lead to angioid streaks with calcification of Bruch's membrane, the elastic tissue below the retinal ring.
Dystrophic soft tissue calcification is a type of soft-tissue calcification, which occurs in damaged or necrotic tissue, while the serum level of calcium and phosphorus are normal. It may progress to ossification, in which case a cortical and trabecular bone pattern is visible.
primary bone-forming tumors: osteosarcoma
other sarcomas: specially synovial sarcoma
scleroderma and CREST syndrome
systemic lupus erythematosus