Dr. Tanju YILDÖN & Tıp Bilim Eğitimi

Distrofik kalsifikasyon


Dystrophic vs metastatic calcification | Metastatic, Subcutaneous tissue,  Pagets disease






Pathologic calcification



Dystrophic Calcification: Dead Tissue
• Caseous necrosis in tuberculosis is the most common site
• Liquefaction necrosis i...



Calcification in dead tissue


1-Caseous necrosis in T.B. is most common site of dystrophic calcification.

2-Liquefactive necrosis in chronic abscesses may get calcified.

3-Fat necrosis following acute pancreatitis or traumatic fat necrosis in breasts results in deposition of calcium soaps.

4-Infarcts may undergo D.C.

5-Thrombi, especially in veins, may produce phlebolithis.

6-Haematomas in the vicinity of bones may undergo D.C.

7-Dead parasites like schistosoma eggs may calcify.

8-Congenital toxoplasmosis, CMV or rubella may be seen on X-ray as calcifications in the brain.

Dystrophic Calcification: Dead Tissue
• Thrombi, especially in the veins, may produce
phleboliths.
• Haematomas in the vic...







Dystrophic calcification: Degenerated
Tissues
• Dense old scars may undergo hyaline degeneration
and subsequent calcificat...
Calcification in degenerated tissue


1-Dense scars may undergo hyaline degeneration and calcification.

2-Atheroma in aorta and coronaries frequently undergo calcification.3-Cysts can show calcification.

4-Calcinosis cutis is condition in which there are irregular nodular deposits of calcium salts in skin and subcutaneous tissue.

5-Senile degenerative changes may be accompanied by calcification.

6-The inherited disorder pseudoxanthoma elasticum may lead to angioid streaks with calcification of Bruch's membrane, the elastic tissue below the retinal ring.

Dystrophic calcification: Degenerated
Tissues
• Psammoma bodies or calcospherites: characteristic
spherules of calcificati...

Dystrophic calcification
Fibrosis and dystrophicFibrosis and dystrophic
calcifications of the
pancreatic parenchyma.
www.f...

Dystrophic calcification
Mitral Stenosis:
Gross natural
color openedcolor opened
valve with
commissure fusion
dystrophic
c...

Dystrophic soft tissue calcification is a type of soft-tissue calcification, which occurs in damaged or necrotic tissue, while the serum level of calcium and phosphorus are normal. It may progress to ossification, in which case a cortical and trabecular bone pattern is visible.

Differential diagnosis 

I-Vascular

venous insufficiency
Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis 

Dystrophic calcification
Degenerated tunica media of muscular
artery of uterine myometrium in
Mönckeberg’s arteriosclerosi...

II-Infection

granulomatous infection
parasitic infestation
cysticercosis
dracunculiasis
Armillifer armillatus

Dystrophic calcification: Pathogenesis
• Denatured proteins in necrotic or degenerated tissue
bind phosphate ions, which r...

III-Neoplasm

primary bone-forming tumors: osteosarcoma
other sarcomas: specially synovial sarcoma
osteoma
tumor necrosis
sarcoidosis 

IV-Drugs

vitamin D
milk-alkali syndrome

V-Autoimmune

dermatomyositis
scleroderma and CREST syndrome
systemic lupus erythematosus 

VI-Trauma

heterotopic ossification
injection granuloma